Dr. Hayal Köksal
AI & SOCIETY Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Communication ISSN 0951-5666
Publication year:


Abstract The history of Total Quality in Education and
Students’ Quality Circles in Turkish educational institutions
is introduced through ‘‘İmece Circles (ICs).’’ The
history dates from the foundation of the Turkish Republic
in 1923, and industrial quality-focused reforming actions
in the 1980s. The Total Quality implications of the Ministry
of National Education in 1990s will be discussed,
with an account of the efforts of the writer as the Director
of the Turkish Center for School of Quality and the
Director General for Turkey for the World Council for
Total Quality and Excellence in Education. The theory,
practices and outcomes of nearly 2,000 ICs will be
reported. Among the key innovations has been ‘‘Total
Quality Management,’’ and its implementation, through
various methods and tools, in different settings such as
‘‘Quality Circles.’’ The article concludes with some
Keywords: Imece circles,  Students’ quality circles